A regular highlight of the winter astronomy calendar is the peak of the annual Geminid meteor shower, which takes place this week on 13/14 December.

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As with any meteor shower, the shower’s success is dictated by the phase of the Moon and the weather.

The 2022 Geminid meteor shower reaches peak activity around 13:00 UT on 14 December, and the night of 13/14 December presents the best opportunity for seeing a Geminid meteor.

However, there is something of a caveat this year, as a bright waning gibbous Moon will interfere.

This 70%-lit waning gibbous Moon will have a detrimental effect on the number of Geminid meteors that can be seen, but it's still worth heading out to see if you can spot a Geminid.

It's also a great excuse to get friends and family outside and looking up at the night sky.

There's so much to see during the colder, darker months, from winter constellations to familiar favourites like Orion or the Pleiades.

Or why not make good use of that bright Moon and observe the Moon with the naked eye or a telescope, paying particular attention to the terminator?

Read on for our guide on how to see the 2022 Geminid meter shower.

Find out when the next meteor shower is happening

A Geminid meteor streaks across the night sky over Myanmar, 14 December 14 2018. Credit: YE AUNG THU/AFP via Getty Images
A Geminid meteor streaks across the night sky over Myanmar, 14 December 14 2018. Credit: YE AUNG THU/AFP via Getty Images

When is the 2022 Geminid meteor shower?

The 2022 Geminid meteor shower reaches peak activity around 13:00 UT on 14 December, making the night of 13/14 December the best time to see one (that bright Moon being a big caveat, of course).

When observing a meteor shower, it pays to take into account what the Moon is doing: if it's bright, full and high in the sky during peak activity, it will drown out a lot of meteors, meaning you will see fewer.

A Geminid meteor captured on 14 December 2017. Credit: Mary McIntyre
A Geminid meteor captured on 14 December 2017. Credit: Mary McIntyre

This week, around the peak of the 2022 Geminid meteor shower, the Moon is a 70%-lit waning gibbous.

For more info on what this means, read our guide to the phases of the Moon.

The Moon will have a detrimental effect on the number of Geminid meteors that can be seen, but it's still worth heading out to see if you can spot a Geminid.

Get weekly Moon rise times and phases sent directly to your email inbox by signing up to the BBC Sky at Night Magazine e-newsletter.

Geminids meteor shower Parisa Bajelan, Alamut Valley, Alborz, Iran, 14 December 2020. Equipment: Canon 6D DSLR (modified), Canon 16–35mm lens, Manfrotto MT190CXPRO4 tripod
Geminid meteor shower Parisa Bajelan, Alamut Valley, Alborz, Iran, 14 December 2020. Equipment: Canon 6D DSLR (modified), Canon 16–35mm lens, Manfrotto MT190CXPRO4 tripod

What is zenithal hourly rate?

The zenithal hourly rate, or ZHR, of a meteor shower is the total number of meteors you might expect to see during peak activity with absolutely perfect conditions, i.e. under clear, dark skies away from light pollution.

The ZHR is often quoted during big meteor showers, however given the above caveats, observers should expect the actual number to be somewhat lower.

A shower’s zenithal hourly rate is a normalised value: a figure that compensates for all the issues that degrade a shower’s visual performance.

The ZHR considers how much of the sky you can, or cannot see. It takes account of the radiant’s altitude and how clear your sky is.

Applying the ZHR correction to the number of meteors seen over a set period gives you a figure that more accurately represents a shower’s activity.

The Geminid shower has an excellent zenithal hourly rate (ZHR) of 140–150 meteors per hour. A medium entry speed for the meteoroids also makes Geminid trails easier to photograph. A bright event can look pretty spectacular.

How to see a Geminid meteor

Geminid meteor shower Meena Singelee, Schwartzsee, Zermatt, Switzerland, 13 December 2021 Equipment: Canon 200D DSLR, Rokinon 14mm f2.8 lens
Geminid meteor shower by Meena Singelee, Schwartzsee, Zermatt, Switzerland, 13 December 2021

Meteor showers are one of the easiest astronomical events to observe as they are best seen with the naked eye, making it the perfect opportunity to get both children and adult beginners excited about astronomy.

Prepare yourself with warm clothing and perhaps a hot drink in a flask. A sun lounger or deck chair makes a great viewing platform as it allows you to watch in relative comfort.

Aim to view the sky at an altitude of 60º or so. Any direction is fine, although bear in mind that trails will be shortest closer to the radiant and longest 90° from the radiant.

Convention dictates that a good compromise is to look 40–50° from the 'radiant' position, which is located near the star Castor (Alpha (α) Geminorum) in Gemini (see chart above).

To find Gemini, imagine a line between Orion’s right foot (Rigel) and left shoulder (Betelgeuse), then follow that line on for around the distance between your thumb and little finger stretched out at arm's length.

There should be a pair of bright stars here: Castor and Pollux, the ‘heads’ of Gemini’s twins.

The radiant is just by Castor, but you want to look slightly away from this region rather than directly at it. If you spot a meteor coming from this region, you've seen a Geminid.

The radiant of the Geminids comes from just beside the bright star Castor. Credit: Pete Lawrence

Find a place that is dark and away from light pollution, such as a location away from towns and cities, provided it is safe to do so.

If you are lucky enough to live under very dark skies and can observe from the comfort of your own garden, turn off the lights in your house so they don’t spoil the view.

Avoid using lights such as torches and mobile phones as this will spoil your dark adapted vision.

If you need to see in the dark, use a red torch.

If you need to look at your mobile phone, you may be able to turn your screen red in the settings.

Geminid Meteor by Darren Felgate, Scarborough, UK. Equipment: iPhone, standard camera tripod.
Geminid Meteor by Darren Felgate, Scarborough, UK. Equipment: iPhone, standard camera tripod.

It will take around 20 minutes for your eyes to dark adapt, but hopefully after a little wait you should start to see meteors shooting across the sky.

Remember: clear nights are cold nights. You will be sitting still for a long time, so wrap up warm, bring something to eat and perhaps a hot drink as well.

What causes the Geminid meteor shower?

Meteor showers usually occur when Earth passes through the trail of debris left by a comet.

The Geminids are unusual, however, in that the trail of debris was left behind by an asteroid, 3200 Phaethon.

For more info, read our guide What causes a meteor shower?

How many Geminids will you be able to see?

Geminid Meteor Shower 2017 by Alex Conu, Reine, Norway. Equipment: Hutech modified Canon EOS 6D, Canon EOS 8-15mm f/4L at 15mm f/4
Composition of multiple Geminid meteors above Enisala, Dobrogea, during the night of December 12-13, 2017. Credit: Alex Conu.

The period of peak Geminid activity is wide and over recent years its ZHR has been rising. Currently, the Geminid peak is around 140–150 meteors per hour.

The height of a shower’s radiant (where the it appears to originate, as viewed from Earth) is very important; for example, if a radiant is on the horizon, half of all trails would occur below the horizon.

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A radiant at the zenith is desirable (hence ‘zenithal’ hourly rate), but 70˚ up is pretty good.

The Geminids enter our atmosphere at 35km/s, producing slower trails that make them relatively easy to photograph. The Geminid meteor's trails typically appear off-white.

Of course, as mentioned, around peak activity the 2022 Geminid meteor shower will be hampered by that nearly-full Moon.

But don't let this discourage you too much. Think of it as an opportunity to get outside and enjoy a bit of winter stargazing in the run-up to Christmas.

Most of all, have fun!

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Have you managed to see any Geminid meteors this year? Did you manage to photograph any? Let us know by emailing contactus@skyatnightmagazine.com or get in touch via Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

Authors

Pete Lawrence, astronomer and BBC The Sky at Night presenter.
Pete LawrenceAstronomer and presenter

Pete Lawrence is an experienced astronomer and astrophotographer, and a presenter on BBC's The Sky at Night.